Approximations for many-body Green's functions: insights from the fundamental equations
|Approximations for many-body Green's functions: insights from the fundamental equations
|Lani, G, Romaniello, P, Reining, L
|Year of Publication
|New Journal of Physics
Several widely used methods for the calculation of band structures and photo emission spectra, such as the GW approximation, rely on many-body perturbation theory. They can be obtained by iterating a set of functional differential equations (DEs) relating the one-particle Green's function (GF) to its functional derivative with respect to an external perturbing potential. In this work, we apply a linear response expansion in order to obtain insights into various approximations for GF calculations. The expansion leads to an effective screening while keeping the effects of the interaction to all orders. In order to study various aspects of the resulting equations, we discretize them and retain only one point in space, spin and time for all variables. Within this one-point model we obtain an explicit solution for the GF, which allows us to explore the structure of the general family of solutions and to determine the specific solution that corresponds to the physical one. Moreover, we analyze the performances of established approaches like GW over the whole range of interaction strength, and we explore alternative approximations. Finally, we link certain approximations for the exact solution to the corresponding manipulations of the DE which produces them. This link is crucial in view of a generalization of our findings to the real (multidimensional functional) case where only the DE is known.